M. Adler and C. Van-doren, How to Read a Book, Communications of the ACM, vol.38, issue.4, pp.77-84, 1972.

S. Vector-graphics and S. , Adobe site http, 2002.

L. Anderson-inman and L. Zeitz, Computer- Based Concept Mapping: A Tool for Negotiating Meaning, The Computing Teacher, issue.08, p.26, 1999.

M. Ben-ari, Constructivism in computer science education, Proceedings of the twenty-ninth SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education, pp.257-261, 1998.

J. Bruner, Going Beyond the Information Given, 1973.

M. Chi, M. Bassok, M. Lewis, P. Reimann, and R. Glaser, Self-Explanations: How Students Study and Use Examples in Learning to Solve Problems, Cognitive Science, vol.2, issue.2, pp.145-182, 1989.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog1302_1

S. Cousins, M. Baldonado, and A. Paepcke, A Systems View of Annotations, 2000.

N. Correia and T. Chambel, Active video watching using annotation, Proceedings of the seventh ACM international conference on Multimedia (Part 2) , MULTIMEDIA '99, 1999.
DOI : 10.1145/319878.319919

R. Cox and P. Brna, Supporting the use of external representations in problem solving: the need for flexible learning environments, Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol.6, issue.2, pp.239-302, 1995.

T. A. Dijk and W. Kintsch, Strategies of discourse comprehension, 1983.

V. Dimitrova, J. Self, and P. Brna, The interactive maintenance of open learner models, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp.405-412, 1999.

G. Grossen and D. Carnine, 1989 Winner of CLD's Award for Outstanding Research: Diagramming a Logic Strategy: Effects on Difficult Problem Types and Transfer, Learning Disability Quarterly, vol.13, issue.3, pp.168-182, 1990.
DOI : 10.2307/1510699

I. Inspiration, Inspiration Software, www.inspiration.com, 2002.

D. Levy, M. , and C. , Going digital: a look at assumptions underlying digital libraries, Communications of the ACM, vol.38, issue.4, pp.77-84, 1995.
DOI : 10.1145/205323.205346

C. Marshall, The Future of Annotation in a Digital (Paper) World. The 35th Annual GSLIS Clinic: Successes and Failures of Digital Libraries, 1998.

C. Marshall, Annotation, Proceedings of the second ACM international conference on Digital libraries , DL '97, pp.131-140, 1997.
DOI : 10.1145/263690.263806

. Mindjet, MindManager Business and Standard Edition, 2002.

O. 'hara and K. , Towards a Typology of Reading Goals, 1996.

O. Hara, K. Sellen, and A. , A Comparison of Reading Paper and On-Line Documents, Proceedings of CHI'97, pp.335-342, 1997.

S. Ohlsson, Learning to do and learning to understand, Learning in humans and machines, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00699807

T. Phelps and R. Wilensky, Multivalent Annotations, Proceedings of the First European Conference on Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BFb0026734

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.54.7049

K. Rouane, C. Frasson, and M. Kaltenbach, LKC: Learning by Knowledge Construction, International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-47987-2_23

K. Stenning and J. Oberlander, A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation, Cognitive Science, vol.1, issue.1, pp.97-140, 1995.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog1901_3

. Belvedere, Engaging students in critical discussion of science and public policy issues, 7th World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED 95

S. Toulmin, The uses of argument, 1958.
DOI : 10.1017/CBO9780511840005