M. J. Atkins, Evaluating interactive technologies for learning, Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol.13, issue.4, pp.333-342, 1993.
DOI : doi:10.3102/00346543053004445

C. Bagley and B. Hunter, Restructuring, constructivism and technology : Forging a new relationship, Educational Technology, vol.7, pp.22-27, 1992.

J. Barbier and M. Lesne, L'analyse des besoins en formation, 1986.

J. B. Biggs and R. Telfer, The process of learning, 1987.

G. Brown and M. Atkins, Effective teaching in higher education, 1988.
DOI : 10.4324/9780203221365

R. E. Clark and S. Leonard, Computer Research Confounding, Colloque présenté à The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1985.

R. Clark and G. Salomon, Media in teaching, Handbook of research on teaching, pp.464-478, 1986.

A. W. Combs, Fostering maximum development of the individual, Issues in secondary education. Chicago : National Society for the Study of Education, 1976.

D. L. Cooperrider, J. Sorensen, P. F. Whitney, D. Yaeger, and T. F. , Appreciative inquiry : Rethinking human organization toward a positive theory of change, 2000.

J. De-ketele, L'évaluation du savoirêtre L'évaluation : approche descriptive ou prescriptive?, pp.179-208, 1986.

J. Delors, Conversation with J. Delors : Allier Connaissance et savoir-faire. Le magazine, 1994.

S. Dijkstra, D. Jonassen, and D. Sembill, Multimedia learning, results and perspectives. Frankfut am Main, 2001.

G. Hall and S. Loucks, Implementing innovations in schools : A concerns-based approach, 1979.

M. Kadiyala and B. L. Crynes, A Review of Literature on Effectiveness of Use of Information Technology in Education, Journal of Engineering Education, vol.20, issue.no. 4, pp.177-190, 2000.
DOI : 10.1002/j.2168-9830.2000.tb00512.x

R. B. Kozman, Learning with Media, Review of Educational Research, vol.61, issue.2, pp.179-211, 1991.
DOI : 10.3102/00346543061002179

J. Kulik, C. Kulik, and P. Cohen, Effectiveness of Computer-based College Teaching: A Meta-analysis of Findings, Review of Educational Research, vol.50, issue.4, pp.525-544, 1980.
DOI : 10.3102/00346543050004525

D. Laurillard, Rethinking university teaching : A framework for the effective use of educational technology, 1993.

M. Lebrun, Des technologies pour enseigner et apprendre, 1999.
DOI : 10.3917/dbu.lebru.2007.01

M. Lebrun, Théories et méthodes pédagogiques pour enseigner et apprendre : Quelle place pour les TIC dans l'éducation?, 2002.
DOI : 10.3917/dbu.lebru.2007.02

L. E-b-r-u-n, M. V-i-g-a-n-Ò, and R. , D e l' « educational technology » à la technologie pour l'éducation. Les cahiers de la recherche en éducation, pp.267-294

M. Lebrun and R. Viganò, Des multim??dias pour l?????ducation??: de l???interactivit?? fonctionnelle ?? l???interactivit?? relationnelle, Les cahiers de la recherche en éducation, pp.457-482, 1995.
DOI : 10.7202/1018199ar

B. Means and K. Olson, The link between technology and authentic learning, Educational Leadership, vol.7, pp.15-18, 1994.

J. Piaget, L'équilibration des structures cognitives, 1975.

R. Prégent, La préparation d'un cours, Montréal : Éditions de l'École Polytechnique de Montréal, 1990.

T. L. Russell, The no significant difference phenomenon, 1999.

J. M. Savoie and A. S. Hughes, Problem-based learning as classroom solution, Educational Leadership, vol.52, issue.3, pp.54-57, 1994.

R. Saljo, Learning in the learner's perspective IV: Considering one's own strategy (Rep, 1979.

P. Wouters, P. Parmentier, and M. Lebrun, Octobre) Formation pédagogique et développement professionnel des professeurs d 'université. Communication présentée au colloque de l'AECSE (Association des Enseignants et Chercheurs en Sciences de l'Education), 2000.

G. Collin, M. Couture, C. Graham, J. Pearce, S. Howard et al., Modules multimédias chimie/physique ? Mouvements moléculaires et spectroscopie Récupéré le 11 décembre Levels of interactivity, Proceedings of OZCHI 2001 [CD-ROM]. Freemantle, Australie, 2001.

R. H. Hall, S. E. Watkins, and V. E. Eller, A model of Web based design for learning The Handbook of Distance Education, pp.367-376, 2003.

G. Henderson and C. Liberatore, Animated Vibrational Models of Triatomic Molecules, Journal of Chemical Education, vol.75, issue.6, pp.75-779, 1998.
DOI : 10.1021/ed075p779.2

G. Herzberg, Molecular spectra and molecular structure: Infrared and raman spectra of polyatomic molecules, 1991.

J. M. Hollas, Modern spectroscopy, 1996.

P. L. Hutinger and J. Johanson, Software for young children Assistive technology for young children with disabilitie : A guide to family-centered services, pp.76-126, 1998.

D. J. Jarc, Assessing the benefits of interactivity and the influence of learning styles on the effectiveness of algorithm animation using Web-based data structures courseware, Thèse de doctorat inédite, 1999.

P. M. Lahti, E. J. Motyka, and R. J. Lancashire, Interactive visualization of infrared spectral dat : Synergy of computation, visualization and experiment for learning spectroscopy, Journal of Chemical Education, vol.77, pp.649-653, 2000.

J. J. Nash, Vibrational modes of small molecules 15 novembre). 2D is better than 3D, Récupéré le 8 octobre 2003 du site Web de Purdue University, 1998.

D. Reamon and S. Sheppard, Motor workshop: the role of interactivity in promoting learning, FIE '98. 28th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference. Moving from 'Teacher-Centered' to 'Learner-Centered' Education. Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.98CH36214), 1998.
DOI : 10.1109/FIE.1998.738766

M. P. Sigalas, N. D. Charistos, V. I. Teberekidis, and C. A. Tsipis, 3DNormalModes, Journal of Chemical Education, vol.80, issue.10, p.1222, 2003.
DOI : 10.1021/ed080p1222.2

R. Sims, Interactivity: A forgotten art?, Computers in Human Behavior, vol.13, issue.2, pp.157-180, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0747-5632(97)00004-6

B. Stuart and D. J. Ando, Infrared Spectroscopy of Biological Applications, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/9780470027318.a0208

R. S. Tannenbaum, Learner interactivity and production complexity in computerbased instructional materials. Ubiquity - Views, 2001.

C. H. Chiu, W. S. Wu, and C. C. Huang, Collaborative concept mapping processes mediated by computer, World conference on the WWW and Internet, issue.1, pp.95-100, 2000.

C. Depover, J. J. Quintin, and B. De-lièvre, Un outil de scénarisation de formations à distance basées sur la collaboration, Conférence Environnements Informatiques pour l' Apprentissage Humain, pp.469-476, 2003.

P. Dillenbourg, Introduction : What do you mean by " collaborative learning, Collaborative learning : Cognitive and computational approaches, pp.1-19, 1999.

P. Dillenbourg, M. Baker, M. &. Blaye, and C. O-'malley, The evolution of research on collaborative learning, Learning in humans and machine : Towards an interdisciplinary learning science, pp.189-211, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190626

P. Dillenbourg, Over-scripting CSCL : The risks of blending collaborative learning with instructional design, Three worlds of CSCL : Can we support CSCL?, pp.61-91, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190230

D. H. Jonassen, Computers in the classroom : Mindtools for critical thinking, 1996.

D. M. Kennedy and C. A. Reiman, Making the transition from print : Integrating concept mapping and online communication with traditional distance education materials, World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp.2002-952, 2002.

P. Kommers, D. Jonassen, and T. Mayes, Cognitive tools for learning, NATO Series F, vol.81, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-77222-1

P. H. Light and . Mevarech, Cooperative learning with computers: An introduction, Learning and Instruction, vol.2, issue.3, pp.155-159, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0959-4752(92)90006-8

L. Madrazo and J. Vidal, Collaborative concept mapping in a Web-based learning environment: A pedagogic experience in architectural education, Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, vol.11, issue.4, pp.345-362, 2002.

M. Quignard, M. Baker, K. Lund, and A. Séjourné, Conception d'une situation d' apprentissage médiatisée par ordinateur pour le développement de la compréhension de l' espace du débat, Conférence Environnements Informatiques pour l' Apprentissage Humain, pp.355-366, 2003.

J. Roschelle and S. D. Teasley, The Construction of Shared Knowledge in Collaborative Problem Solving, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning NATO SI Series, pp.69-97, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-85098-1_5

N. Stoyanova, Group interaction as a predictor of learning effectiveness in a computer supported collaborative problem-solving design, Proceedings ED- MEDIA 2000 Conference, pp.1716-1717, 2000.

N. Stoyanova and P. Kommers, Concept mapping as medium of shared cognition in computersupported collaborativer problem solving, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol.13, issue.12, pp.111-133, 2002.

D. Suthers and A. Weiner, Groupware for developping critical discussion skills, Proceedings of Computer Supported Cooperative Learning, pp.341-348, 1995.

C. Van-boxtal and A. Veerman, Diagrammediated collaboration learning. Diagrams as tools to provoke and support elaboration and argumentation, CSCL : European Perspectives on computer-supported Collaborative Learning, pp.131-138, 2001.

M. Alavi, Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning: An Empirical Evaluation, MIS Quarterly, vol.18, issue.2, pp.159-174, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/249763

D. P. Brandon and A. B. Hollingshead, Collaborative learning and computer???supported groups, Communication Education, vol.1, issue.2, pp.109-126, 1999.
DOI : 10.1080/03634529809379120

J. Cartwright, Lessons learned : Using asynchronous computer-mediated conferencing to facilitate group discussion, Educational Innovations, vol.39, issue.2, pp.87-90, 2000.

A. C. Derycke and C. Halliun, Cooperative learning in the distance education of adult : Why, how, and first results from the Co-Learn project, 1995.

I. B. Collis and &. G. Davies, Innovative adult learning with innovative technologies (pp. 101-122)

S. English and M. Yazdani, Computer-supported cooperative learning in a Virtual University, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol.15, issue.1, pp.2-13, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2729.1999.151071.x

J. Ewing, Enhancement of online and offline student learning. Education Media International, pp.205-217, 2000.

G. C. Fernandez and L. Liu, A technologybased teaching model that stimulates statistics learning, Information technology in educational research and statistics, pp.173-191, 1999.

B. Garrison, Successful strategies for computer assisted reporting, 1996.

L. Harasim, Teaching by computer conferencing, Applications of computer conferencing to teacher education and human resource development, 1991.

S. Hooper, Cooperative learning and computer-based instruction, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol.40, issue.1, pp.21-38, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02296840

N. B. Jones and J. Laffey, The Diffusion of Collaborative Technologies into a College Classroom, Performance Improvement Quarterly, vol.12, issue.3, pp.29-46, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1937-8327.2000.tb00190.x

S. E. Kruck and H. L. Reif, Assessing individual student performance in collaborative projects : A case study, Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, vol.19, issue.2, pp.37-47, 2001.

K. L. Murphy and L. Cifuentes, Using Web tools, collaborating, and learning online, p.28, 2001.

A. G. Nilsen and E. J. Intesefijord, Challenges of using CSCL in open distributed learning. Society for information technology & teacher education international conference : Proceedings of SITE, pp.148-154, 2000.

R. J. Ocker and G. J. Yaverbaum, Collaborative learning environments : Exploring student attitudes and satisfaction in face-to-face and asynchronous computer conference settings, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol.12, issue.4, pp.427-448, 2001.

W. M. Reed and J. G. Wells, Merging the Internet and Hypermedia in the English Language Arts, Computers in the Schools, pp.3-4, 1997.
DOI : 10.2190/TVP7-KDD3-MHKP-6AHW

L. B. Resnick, Education and learning to think, 1987.

G. Salomon, What does the design of effective CSCL require and how do we study its effects? Sigcue outlook, pp.62-68, 1992.

M. Scardamalia, C. Bereiter, R. S. Mclean, J. Swallow, and E. Woodruff, Computer-supported intentional learning environments, Journal of Educational Computer Research, vol.5, pp.51-68, 1989.

E. Stacey, Collaborative learning in an online environment Journal of Distance Education/Revue de l'éducation à distance, pp.14-33, 1999.

P. K. Tao, Avril) Computer supported collaborative physics learning : Developing understanding of image formation by lenses, Colloque présenté au Annual meeting of National association for Research in Science Teaching, 2000.

C. Vrasidas, A systematic approach for designing hypermedia environments for teaching and learning, International Journal of Instructional Media, vol.29, issue.1, 2002.

W. Atkins-sayre, S. Hopkins, S. Mohundro, and W. Sayre, Rewards and liabilities of presentation software as an ancillary too : prison or paradise? Communication présentée a u A, 1998.

S. Bushong, Utilization of PowerPoint presentation software in library instruction of subject specific reference sources, 1998.

K. Bushweller, E-defining education. Education Week, pp.1-98, 2002.

L. J. Carrell and K. E. Menzel, Variations in learning, motivation, and perceived immediacy between live and distance education classrooms, Communication Education, vol.20, issue.3, pp.230-240, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/tl.7111

J. Downing and C. Garmon, Teaching students in the basic course how to use presentation software, Communication Education, vol.22, issue.3, pp.218-229, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02948722

N. Dvoracek and L. Powerpoint, Récupéré le 25 novembre 2003 de l'University of Wisconsin Oshkosh du site : http://idea Performing remarkable feats with presentation graphics packages, pp.29-31, 1994.

L. Evans, Preliminary stud : lectures versus PowerPoint 4.0, 1998.

S. Fifield and R. Peifer, Enhancing lecture presentations in introductory biology with computer-based multimedia, Journal of College Science Teaching, vol.23, issue.4, pp.235-239, 1994.

B. A. Frey and D. J. Birnbaum, Learners' perceptions on the value of PowerPoint in lectures (Rapport de recherche), 2002.

R. J. Harknett and C. T. Cobane, Introducing Instructional Technology to International Relations, PS: Political Science & Politics, vol.20, issue.03, pp.496-500, 1997.
DOI : 10.2307/420525

J. Holzl, Twelve tips for effective PowerPoint presentations for the technologically challenged, Medical Teacher, vol.2, issue.3, pp.175-179, 1997.
DOI : 10.3109/01421599709019377

D. Howell and D. Howell, Using PowerPoint in the Classroom, 2002.

H. P. Leblanc and . Iii, The use of PowerPoint in the public speaking classroom, Communication présentée au Annual Meeting of the National Communication Association, 2001.

F. E. Litton, Does technology really make a difference? -perspectives from teacher education students, Communication présentée au Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, 2001.

R. B. Lowry, Electronic presentation of lectures -effect upon student performance, pp.18-21, 1999.

E. J. Mantei, Using Internet class notes and PowerPoint in the physical geology lecture, Journal of College Science Teaching, vol.29, issue.5, pp.301-305, 2000.

P. M. Marr, Grouping Students at the Computer to Enhance the Study of British Literature, The English Journal, vol.90, issue.2, pp.120-125, 2000.
DOI : 10.2307/821228

J. K. Mckenzie and T. D. Lundgren, Scoring power points Récupéré le 5 septembre Montreuil, S. et Groupe de travail pro-actif en ergonomie. Guide du choix des couleurs dans la création de pages écran Lecturing with technology, College Teaching, vol.46, issue.2, pp.53-56, 1998.

I. Parker, Absolute PowerPoint, New Yorker, pp.76-87, 2001.

M. Pearson, J. Folske, D. Paulson, and C. Burggraf, The relationship between student perceptions of the multimedia classroom and student learning styles, Communication présentée au Annual Meeting of the Eastern Communication Association, 1994.

M. Peat, C. Taylor, and A. Fernandez, From informational technology in biology teaching to inspirational technology: where have we come from and where are we going?, Communication présentée au Annual Meeting of the Australian Science Teachers Association, 2001.

Z. K. Quible, Maximizing the Effectiveness of Electronic Presentations, Business Communication Quarterly, vol.65, issue.2, pp.82-85, 2002.
DOI : 10.1177/108056990206500207

J. Rickman and M. Grudzinski, Student expectations of information technology use in the classroom, Educause Quarterly, vol.23, issue.1, pp.24-30, 2000.

L. J. Robertson, Twelve tips for using a computerised interactive audience response system, Medical Teacher, vol.22, issue.3, pp.237-239, 2000.
DOI : 10.1080/01421590050006179

D. Siegle and T. Foster, Effects of laptop computers with multimedia and presentation software on student achievement, Communication présentée au Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association (AERA), 2000.

A. Szabo and N. Hastings, Using IT in the undergraduate classroom: should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint?, Computers & Education, vol.35, issue.3, pp.175-187, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0360-1315(00)00030-0

E. V. Tufte, R. Vetter, C. Ward, and S. Shapiro, PowerPoint is evil Wired Magazine, Septembre Récupéré le 15 septembre Effective use of PowerPoint in education Récupéré le 2 novembre 2003 de l'Illinois Online Network du site : http://illinois. online.uillinois Using color and text in multimedia projection, IEEE Multimedia, vol.2, pp.46-54, 1995.

C. Wheildon, Communicating? Or Just Making Pretty Shapes, 1986.